"History is past politics, and politics present history." John Robert Seeley

"The farther backward you can look, the farther forward you can see." Winston Churchill

"What we have to learn to do, we learn by doing." Aristotle


Essays: Pursuit of Sovereignty

Please read the following guidelines in relation to the CM & OE marking scheme:

Guidelines to Essay Marking Scheme



Factors of Partition, 1912 – 1920


Q. During the period 1912-1920, what factors contributed to the partition of Ireland? (2010)

Q. From 1912 onwards, what factors contributed to the partition of Ireland, 1920? (2006)
Chris Ryan Partition of Ireland



Anglo-Irish Treaty Negotiations (1921)



Q. How successful were the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations? (Mock 2012)

How successful were the Anglo

Q. Why were the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations controversial? (2009)

ESSAYWhy were the AngloIrish Treaty Negotiations Controversial

Q. To what extent was the Anglo-Irish Treaty, 1921, responsible for the Irish Civil War? (2008)

Simon Crowley Outbreak of the Civil War



Consolidation of Democracy 1922 – 1932


Q. How did the Irish government contribute to the consolidation of democracy, 1922-1932? (2011)

Q. What steps did Irish governments take to consolidate democracy, 1923-1945? * (2008)

Q. Between 1922 and 1932, what steps did the Cosgrave governments take to establish the  Irish Free State on firm foundations? (2006)



Eucharistic Congress 1932


Q. To what extent did the 1932 Eucharistic Congress and/or the language and education policies of Irish governments promote Irish cultural identity? (2010)

Q. What was the significance of the Eucharistic Congress, 1932, for the Irish Free State? (2008)

What was the significance of the Eucharistic Congress of 1932 to the Irish Free State


Fianna Fáil Government 1932 – 1948


Q. What were the strengths and weaknesses of Éamon de Valera as a political leader? (2011)

Q. Who handled Anglo-Irish relations better, W. T. Cosgrave or Éamon de Valera?  Argue your case, referring to both. (2010)

Q. During the period 1932-1945, which did Éamon de Valera manage better, the economy or Anglo-Irish relations?  Argue your case, referring to both. (2009)

Q. How did Anglo-Irish relations develop during the period 1923 – 1949? (2007)

Simon Crowley Anglo-Irish Relations 1923 – 1949



Belfast during World War II








Ordinary Level

Anglo-Irish Treaty Negotiations 1921
Ciarán Rowe Anglo-Irish Treaty Negotiations 1921


Belfast during World War II

Ciarán Rowe Belfast during World War II, 1939 – 1945


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