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Pursuit of Sovereignty & Impact of Partition Timeline

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Pursuit of Sovereignty & Impact of Partition 1912 -1949

Timeline created by LiamMac2011 in History
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Event Date: Event Title: Event Description:
245px-herbert_henry_asquith_tiny 04/11/1912 3rd Home Rule Bill passes in House of Commons Prime Minister Asquith introduced the 3rd Home Rule Bill tot he House of Commons with a view to creating national self-government in Ireland, while Britain would retain supremacy in all Imperial matters.
Carson_signing_solemn_league_and_covenant (1)_tiny 09/28/1912 Ulster Solemn League & Covenant Campaigning strongly against any introduction of Home Rule in Ireland, Ulster Unionists numbering over 200,000 males, signed the ‘Ulster Solemn League & Covenant’ stating that they would use all means necessary to prevent the introduction of Home Rule in Ireland, especially in the northern counties where Unionists constituted a majority of the population. There was also a ‘Ladies Covenant’.
Tams  carl_tiny 01/13/1913 UVF (Ulster Volunteer Force) formed Backing up their threat to use any force necessary to prevent Home Rule, the Ulster Unionist Council formally inaugurated the Ulster Volunteer Force on 13th of January, 1913. This militia would draw its members from the signatories of the ‘Ulster Solemn League & Covenant, aged between 17 – 65, and led by Lieutenant-General Sir George Richardson KCB
Sc35b_tiny 04/24/1916 Proclamation of the Irish Republic With Home Rule having been ‘shelved’ until after the Great War in Europe (WWI), many extremists within the Irish Volunteers felt that Redmond’s proposal to fight with the British was contrary to their beliefs and aims. With this in mind, approxiamately 11,000 Volunteers split from the Irish Volunteer Force and combined with elements of the IRB, Irish Citizen Army and prominent cultural nationalists, began planning a rebellion. Padraig Pearse read the Proclamation outside the GPO on 24th April.
Irish_uk_election_1918_tiny 12/14/1918 1918 Election (UK & Ireland) The swing away from moderate, constitutional nationalism led by Redmond & the Irish Parliamentary Party was completed by the General Election of 1918. A backlash of public opinion following the summary executions of the 1916 Rising leaders, coupled with a sympathy for those who were interned and also a growing impatience with continuously-delayed Home Rule implementation all served to work in Sinn Féin’s favour.
Declarationofindependence_tiny 01/21/1919 Dáil Declaration of Independence Following Sinn Féin’s success in the 1918 General Election, the newly-elected members refused to take their seats in Westminster (Abstentionism) and instead formed the 1st Dail Eireann – An Chéad Dáil Eireann). Having begun an independent parliament in defiance of British Rule in Ireland, the Dáil issued a ‘Declaration of Independence’ to the “free nations of the world”.
Bloody-sunday-match-ticket-300x223_tiny 11/21/1920 Bloody Sunday In reprisal for the assassination of 14 British intelligence officers, known as the ‘Cairo Gang’, on the morning of Sunday, 21st of November, the RIC & the military wing of the RIC, commanded by Major Mills, indiscriminately fired into a crowd of spectators at Croke Park, killing fourteen, including a Tipperary footballer named Michael Hogan. Two young boys, aged 10 & 11 were also killed. One of the main stands in Croke Park is named the ‘Hogan Stand’ in memory of those who were killed.
2ocqn930ubywvi8z0wl9dhefnm6z926$b2i35mpwa63atxazyzyddy026cfzfjh_tiny 12/11/1920 Burning of Cork During the Anglo-Irish War of Independence, British forces often resorted to indiscriminate attacks on the population, in revenge for the continuous ambushing of their soldiers by the IRA, particularly in Cork. This event was undoubtedly the largest operation of reprisal during the whole period of 1919 – 1921. Initially refusing to blame their own soldiers, the British Government later published the “Strickland Report” which blamed a company of British Auxiliaries for the widespread arson.
David_lloyd_george_tiny 07/11/1921 British Truce Offer (War of Independence) The British Government, realising the huge political & economic cost of a continuing armed conflict against the IRA, declared a truce and offer of negotiations to Dáil Eireann & the Sinn Féin Government.
Signing-the-anglo-irish-treaty-1922_tiny 12/06/1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty Having negotiatied for more than 2 months, with confusion as to the best possible course of action and a realisation that complete independence was not forthcoming from the British, the Sinn Féin delegation signed the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6th of December, 1921. Realising that Partition & an Oath of Allegiance would cause huge controversy and division in Ireland, Michael Collins commented that “…today, I signed my death warrant”.
Collins2_tiny 08/22/1922 Michael Collins Assassination While visiting his native West Cork, Michael Collins was assassinated in an ambush at BeálnaBláth in August 1922. Collins was at the time reviewing Free State forces throughout County Cork, but it has also been alledged that his presence there at this time, with such a light security detail, was due to the rumour that peace talks were about to begin to bring the Irish Civil War to an end.
7937615409072895_tiny 12/06/1922 Irish Free State Established Exactly twlve months to the day of the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the Irish Free State came into existence. this would precipitate the secession of Northern Ireland two days later as well as the dramatic intensifying of Anti-Treaty attacks on the state
Imagescajy6kip_tiny 12/08/1922 Northern Ireland Secedes from Free State Under the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, the Northern Parliament (as enacted under the terms of Government of Ireland Act, 1920) had the right to secede (withdraw) from any agreement between the British Government & Irish representatives. The Northern Parliament formally withdrew from the agreed new Irish Free State on the 8th of December, two days after the official founding of the Irish Free State. This brought the state of Northern Ireland into real, legal existence & clarity.
League_tiny 09/10/1923 Irish Free State joins League of Nations The Irish Free State joins the League of Nations in 1923. Desmond Fitzgerald, as MInister for External Affairs, oversaw the application process.
Item_tiny 07/05/1924 Registration of Anglo-Irish Treaty with League of Nations’ Secretariat In a move that greatly angered the British Government, the Irish Free State registered the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921 with the League of Nations’ Secretariat. By doing so the British argued, the League was accepting that both the Irish Free State & Britain were ‘sovereign’ states, while Britain clearly felt that the Free State was still very much a ‘dominion’ of the Commonwealth. The British eventually backed down and the Treaty remained registered as original.
Balfour declaration_tiny 10/25/1926 Balfour Declaration This Dec;aration, which was unanimously adopted by the 1926 Imperial Conference stated that all dominions of the British Commonwealth were autonomous, i.e. independent & self-governing, and that all members were ”equal in status”. Although this was just a declaration, it would eventually lead to the Statute of Westminster of 1931, which was law.
Ohigginss_tiny 07/10/1927 Kevin O’Higgins Assassination Assassianted on his way to mass in revenge for the execution of Anti-Treaty IRA members while Minister for Justice.
Statuteofw_tiny 12/11/1931 Statute of Westminster (UK) This statute, brought about by dominion pressure from the Irish Free State, South Africa & Canada in particular, gave dominion parliaments the right to repeal legisaltion made in London with regard to their own territory. In effect, it gave the parliaments in each dominion to power to repeal laws made in London if they did not wish to implement them in their own countries.
Valera_cabinet_tiny 02/16/1932 Fianna Fáil Government Fianna Fáil, founded by Eamon deValera in 1926, forced into the Dáil by the Electoral Amendment Act of 1937, came to power in 1932. Fianna Fáil won the General Election with an overall majority, securing 72 seats.
Ts_tiny 12/12/1936 Executive Authority (External Relations) Act 1936 After the abdication of King Edward VIII (pictured), Eamon deValera’s government moved quickly to alter the relationship of the Irish Free State with the THrone of England. The Act essentially removed the British Monarch’s role in the conclusion of international agreements and in the appointments of representatives for the Irish Free State.
Bunreachtnaheireann_tiny 12/29/1937 Bunreacht na hEireann Bunreacht na hEireann replaced the Constitution of the Irish Free State (1922 – 1937), which was based on the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921. This new constitution greatly enhanced the sovereignty of the Irish State (now re-named ‘Éire’), stipulating that the Head of State would be elected in Ireland through universal suffrage. The President of Ireland (Úachtarán na hEireann) would replace the King/Queen of England as Head of State. Irish was also adopted as the 1st official language of the state.
Elt200711281050395882338_tiny 07/11/1938 Return of Treaty Ports As part of negotiations to end the Anglo-Irish Trade (Economic) War of 1983 – 1938, the Irish Government pushed for the return of the ‘Treaty Ports’ of Spike Island (Cobh), Berehaven & Lough Swilly. These bases had been held by the UK as in accordance with the Irish Free State’s Anglo-Irish Agreement of 1921. With the return of these naval bases, Ireland could now justifiably claim ‘sovereign neutrality’ of its territory. { UK – ‘Eire (Confirmation of Agreements) Act ]
Gov_tiny 09/03/1939 Emergency Powers’ Act This legislation, hurriedly rushed through the Dáil, gave the government the power to suppress and arrest any individual(s) or groups who might endanger Irish Neutrality of security during the span of the conflict (WWII). During the ‘Emergency’ as it became known in Ireland, this legislation would give the government the power to censor radio & print broadcasts as well as leading to the execution of IRA dissidents being held in prison.
17a_tiny 01/01/1946 Ireland applies for UN Membership From 1946 to December 1955, Ireland’s application for UN membership was blocked by the Soviet Union, on the alledged grounds that Ireland did not deserve to be members of the UN as it had not contributed to the effort of destroying Nazi Germany during WWII. However, it would be far more realistic to assume that the USSR vetoed Ireland’s application as it did not want to allow another Pro-Western Allies nation to enter the system of the General Assembly during the Cold War conflict that had begun
1948-cabinet_tiny 12/21/1948 Republic of Ireland Act This Act, which came into effect in April 1949, declared the 26-county Éire an independent, sovereign Republic, which formally cut the last remaining few ties to the British Commonwealth. John A. Costello was Taosieach of the Inter-Party Government which brought this Act through the Dáil.

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