"History is past politics, and politics present history." John Robert Seeley

"The farther backward you can look, the farther forward you can see." Winston Churchill

"What we have to learn to do, we learn by doing." Aristotle


The Council of Trent

The Council of Trent




  1. REFORM: Emperor Charles V wanted them to first address abuses within the Church, e.g. Nepotism, Pluralism, Sale of Indulgences etc.
  2. DOCTRINE: Pope Paul III was more interested in changes to doctrine and did not want to reform as it would financially damage the Papacy & undermine his authority
  3. Three different sessions were held over the course of 18 years.
  4. Over 270 cardinals & bishops attended
  5. Pope is represented by ‘Legates’


1st Session:     1545-1549

2nd Session:      1551-1552  

3rd Session:    1562-1563


Decrees of the Council of Trent:

  • Faith AND good works are required for salvation
  • Sale of Indulgences to be continued in ‘moderation
  • Martin Luther’s publications e.g. ’95 Theses’ are banned
  • The Jesuits are set up to spread Catholicism through education
  • The ‘Inquisition‘ is created: a trial for religious heresy (or beliefs that are anti-Catholic)














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