"History is past politics, and politics present history." John Robert Seeley

"The farther backward you can look, the farther forward you can see." Winston Churchill

"What we have to learn to do, we learn by doing." Aristotle


The Counter-Reformation

Beginning in 1545 with the Council of Trent, this was an effort by the Catholic Church in Rome to counter the spread of Protestantism

The Church focused on improving and protecting their faith through three main areas:


  • Council of Trent – reinforced Catholic doctrine & practises, while universally banning reformist ideas
  • The trial or ‘Inquisition‘ of heretics – to publicly punish ‘heretics’ in an effort to publicise the dangers of reformist ideology











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