"History is past politics, and politics present history." John Robert Seeley

"The farther backward you can look, the farther forward you can see." Winston Churchill

"What we have to learn to do, we learn by doing." Aristotle


The Work of an Archaeologist

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Archaeology is not only the hand maid of history, it is also the conservator of Art
– Edward G. Bulwer-Lytton

Welcome to the Archaeology Page
by Mark Ionas
(4.2P, 2013)







Archaeological Dig

Archaeological Techniques & Methods


is a method in which Archaeologists study the layers of the ground with the porpoise of finding archaeological deposits.Stratigraphy is referred to as Layer cake, the more layers an object is under, the older it is. Stratigraphy can also be classified as the oldest of methods to date archaeological artefacts.




Carbon-14 Dating

All living objects, such as wood, plants, animals, etc, contain two types of carbon-the standard carbon 12 and a very weak radioactive form carbon 14. When an object dies off, the radioactive carbon 14 starts decaying.By determining at which stage of the decay is, the age of an object can be calculated.The full decay takes around 12,000 years, so objects can be determined this far back.



The Archaeological study of a large area for the porpoise of Gathering Information about a particular culture,e.g The Program for Belize Archaeological project with the aim mapping, artifact processing and artifact analysis which could give an insight in Mayan prehistory.



The assesments of the artifacts and structures are revealed at an excavation site.They study the artifacts design,weight,height,layout,content and origin obsessively.Analysis is important in Archaeology as it can show us after analyzing artifacts and samples found on archaeological sites what people were eating , their customs and culture i.e , burial, marriage, right of passage. So it helps us connect the dots on our ancestors way of life.


Tools of an Archaeologist

Here are some of the many instruments used by an Archaeologist.


Probing is an effective way when trying to see if there are any unexposed walls,floors or bedrock but it is only effective a few meters down. A Probe is a Archaeological tool consisting of a metal rod.                                                                          

Archaeologists use other tools as well to aid them in their quest of the unknown , i.e, a simple Toothbrush, a Spear and Jackson and a                  

                                                                    Underwater Archaeology requires a different set of  tools, i,e , gigantic Vacuums to suck up sediment , Giant sediment balloons to lift up heavy artifacts to the water surface.


Types of Artefacts.


Pottery is a very important artifact because it shows People of the past’s idea of Art , their flavor of style and their thoughts on events and the mystic and religious world around them.One example is the Aboriginal Pottery, the pictures clearly show us how Aborigines not only see the wildlife, but the environment as a whole. Because most of the Aboriginal Pottery is all brown and a reddish color, it shows us that Australia is a very hot and humid places.


Weaponry is a very important artifact because it shows how army’s,warriors,thief’s,gladiators,even locals, fought in the past.When Archaeologists find a weapon, they can tell when and where it came from because of its distinct style.From the big,elongated Swords of the British Knights, to the curved Scimitar’s of the Middle Eastern Warriors, to the long serrated Katana’s of the Samurai’s, to the fat,greedy BattleAxes of the Vikings, Archaeologists can tell when and where it came from. One prime example is the Arbalest, pictured at the left.It’s clear style is european and even the name is European, a french name which was brought from the Roman word for Crossbow,”Arcuballista”


The tomb of King Tut, Gold from the South American civilizations and celtic head ornaments , what do they all have in common. They are all Treasure. They made Fantasy’s and luxuries something of a reality.Treasure show us our Ancestor’s view of Luxury , worship and how they presented themselves towards the lower class.

Museum’s are the gateway to our  ancestors, a possibility of experiencing how they lived.


                                                          Here are a few more artifacts to show our Ancestors in close detail.

Bones:These Artifacts help us study the structure of our ancestors far, far into the past.


Household Objects:These Artifacts give us a good insight into our Ancestors house life. From cooking to cleaning to leisure.


Literal findings: Literal Findings are  books, tablets and scrolls .They show are ancestors thoughts ,ideas, ways of life, etc, in the written form.


 Famous Archaeologists

Howard Carter:

Howard Carter was a famous Archaeologist in his own right. His love of Archaeology took him as a 17-year old drawing someone else’s discoveries to find and draw his own discoveries, one of them being the resting place of king Tutankhamun.


Robert Ballard:

Robert Ballard was a underwater Archaeologist who discovered the Infamous Titanic in the year 1985, and the battleship Bismarck in 1989.

Importance of Archaeology.

We should thank Archaeologists for their hard work throughout generations and abundance of artifacts filling our Museums so people (You and I included) have the ability to witness history unfold.

Just to name a few.

The Smithsonian-Washington D.C

The British Museum-London

National Museum-Archaeology and History-Dublin.

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