"History is past politics, and politics present history." John Robert Seeley

"The farther backward you can look, the farther forward you can see." Winston Churchill

"What we have to learn to do, we learn by doing." Aristotle


Why Northern Italy?

  • Separate city-states (political units)

  • Culturally similar

  • Rivals in business and cultural growth

  • Sporadic military conflicts between city states

  • Papal authority over all city-states

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