"History is past politics, and politics present history." John Robert Seeley

"The farther backward you can look, the farther forward you can see." Winston Churchill

"What we have to learn to do, we learn by doing." Aristotle


Abuses within the Roman Church Pre-Reformation

  • Sale of Indulgences – granting clemency from purgatory for money offered to the Church. Martin Luther described this as “buying your way into heaven.” Much of this money was used to rebuild St. Peter’s Basilica.
  • Nepotism – the practice of using one’s position within the Church to gain positions for  family relatives elsewhere in the organisation.
  • Pluralism – the practice of occupying more than one office or position within the Church at the same time.
  • Simony – the sale of religious positions
  • Absenteeism – regularly being absent from one’s diocese or office within the Church.
















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