"History is past politics, and politics present history." John Robert Seeley

"The farther backward you can look, the farther forward you can see." Winston Churchill

"What we have to learn to do, we learn by doing." Aristotle


Junior Cert Exam Guidelines (H)


Time: 2.5 hours

Total Marks: 180

Sections: 6

(1) Pictures (15 marks)

This section contains 3 Pictures/ Photographs on which you must answer all questions.


(2) Documents (15 marks)

This section contains 2 Documents on which you must answer all questions.


(3) Short Questions (20 marks)

This section contains 20 Short Questions of which you must answer 10 correctly.


(4) People in History (40 marks)

This section contains 2 (A & B) sub-sections of which you must answer 1 in each sub-section i.e. One from A & One from B.


(5) Early Modern Ireland & Europe (30 marks)

(Age of Revolutions/ Reformation/ Plantations/ Exploration/ Industrial & Agricultural Revolutions)

The topic of this question varies between the sections named above. 1-2 Primary/ Secondary Sources (Pictures/ Documents) are provided and all questions must be answered.


(6) Later Modern Ireland & Europe (60 marks)

(Industrial & Agricultural Revolution/ Reformation/ Age of Revolutions/ Social Change in 20th Century Ireland/ Political Developments in 20th Century Ireland/ International Relations in the 20th Century)

This section contains 4 Sub-Sections of which you must answer 2 sub-sections only.



Exam Guidelines:

Answer Sections 1, 2 & 3 in the Exam Booklet.

Answer Sections 4, 5 & 6 in separate Exam Answer Booklet.


Time Allocation:

Section (1) Pictures = 10 – 15 minutes

Section (2) Documents = 10 – 15 minutes

Section (3) Short Questions = 15 – 20 minutes

Section (4) People in History = 25 – 30 minutes

Section (5) Early Modern Ireland/ Europe = 20 – 25 minutes

Section (6) Later Modern Ireland/ Europe = 35 – 40 minutes


*N.B. If the maximum times are taken in the suggestions above, this will leave no time for checking your answers and/ or editing what you have previously written. Be aware of time constraints and DO NOT leave any section unanswered.

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