"History is past politics, and politics present history." John Robert Seeley

"The farther backward you can look, the farther forward you can see." Winston Churchill

"What we have to learn to do, we learn by doing." Aristotle


Nazi Germany 1933 – 1945


Economic Crisis 1929 – 1933

The foundation of the Nazi German Totalitarian State came about in the confusion and uncertainty of the latter years of the Weimar Republic. Financial & fiscal ruin led many of the middle-class voters to abandon the centre-right and centre-left parties in favour of more extreme parties such as the KPD (Communists) & the NSDAP (Fascists).

NSDAP & SA 1921 – 1929

Hitler & the NSDAP built a strong fringe party from 1923 onwards. Having failed to seize power by force, the NSDAP focused on building their movement throughout Germany and expanding their membership beyond ex-Army officers, Nationalists & traditionalists. In order to do this they would need effective recruitment strategies and a strong street presence to defend themselves against the Communists. The SA, led by Ernst Rohm, would provide this fearsome presence and not only defend the Nazi meetings but also disrupt Communist gatherings.

NSDAP Ideology: Nuremberg Rallies 1927 – 1939

From 1927 on, the Nuremberg Rallies became the annual feature of the NSDAP. This was effectively their annual gathering where political indoctrination & pageantry were interwoven in a spell-binding emotional rally of German Nationalism and supremacy. Although notable and popular amongst the party membership, the NSDAP still had only 2.5% of the national vote by 1928.


Nazification of Germany 1933 – 1939

Education & Propaganda

Joseph Goebbels  – Press/Radio/cinema  – ‘Heil Hitler’  – Nuremberg Rallies  – Education  – Hitler Youth  – League of German Maidens

Labour & Economy

Re-armament & Growth in Production (Heavy Industry)  –  Unemployment fell to 1 million in 1937  –  Autobahn Construction

Anti – Semitism & Minority Oppression

‘Aryan Race’  –  Nuremberg Laws (1935)  –  Oppression of Gypsies, Homosexuals & Communists  –  ‘Kristallnacht’ (1938)

Church-State Relations

Concordat with Rome (Catholic Church) 1933  – Harassment of Catholics: ‘Mit Brunnender Sorge’ (1937) – ‘Reichskirche’ (Protestant Church)

Armed Forces

‘Night of the Long Knives’ (1934)  – Re-armament from 1935 – SS increased in numbers

Nazi T0talitarian State MEMOsheet

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