"History is past politics, and politics present history." John Robert Seeley

"The farther backward you can look, the farther forward you can see." Winston Churchill

"What we have to learn to do, we learn by doing." Aristotle


Images of History X

The Battle of Kinsale

Other Sites of Interest


The First of Everything
















Steam Engine




The Reach of the Roman Empire

Roman Empire A.D. 117

(click to enlarge)

From City-State to Empire

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  • The Roman City State (340-264 B.C.) 
  • Battle with Carthage (264-146 B.C.) 











  •  146 B.C. 









  • 117 A.D.
  • 200 A.D.









  • 271 A.D.







  •  The Empire Divided 

The Lake Isle of Innisfree

I will arise and go now, and go to Innisfree,
And a small cabin build there, of clay and wattles made;
Nine bean rows will I have there, a hive for the honeybee,
And live alone in the bee-loud glade.

And I shall have some peace there, for peace comes dropping slow,
Dropping from the veils of the morning to where the cricket sings;
There midnight’s all a-glimmer, and noon a purple glow,
And evening full of the linnet’s wings.

I will arise and go now, for always night and day
I hear lake water lapping with low sounds by the shore;
While I stand on the roadway, or on the pavements gray,
I hear it in the deep heart’s core.


















Laws of Ireland 1800 – 2000

United Kingdom of Great Britain & Ireland (1801 – 1922)

  • Act of Union (1801) 
  • Emancipation Act (1829)
  • Disestablishment of the Church of Ireland Act (1869)
  • Land Act (1870)
  • Land Act (1881)
  • Coercion Act (1881)
  • Parliament Act (1911)
  • *(Government of Ireland Act (1914)
  • Representation of the People Act (1918) 


Irish Free State (1922 – 1937)



Éire (1937 – 1949)



Republic of Ireland (1949 – 2000)

The Secession of Katanga

N.B. Focus for Contextualisation Topics:

“Why did the Province of Katanga secede from the new Democratic Republic of Katanga in 1960?”


“What were the effects of this Secession”?/ “Why did the Secession of Katanga end in 1965?”


Handout: Reasons for Katangan Secession


The speeches, given by King Baudouin II of Belgium and Patrice Lumumba, Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of Congo, on the eve of Congolese Independence:




Secession of Katangappt


A film based on Congolese Independence and the assassination of Patrice Lumumba










The Work of an Archaeologist

Take our quick quizzes here:


Archaeology is not only the hand maid of history, it is also the conservator of Art
– Edward G. Bulwer-Lytton

Welcome to the Archaeology Page
by Mark Ionas
(4.2P, 2013)







Archaeological Dig

Archaeological Techniques & Methods


is a method in which Archaeologists study the layers of the ground with the porpoise of finding archaeological deposits.Stratigraphy is referred to as Layer cake, the more layers an object is under, the older it is. Stratigraphy can also be classified as the oldest of methods to date archaeological artefacts.




Carbon-14 Dating

All living objects, such as wood, plants, animals, etc, contain two types of carbon-the standard carbon 12 and a very weak radioactive form carbon 14. When an object dies off, the radioactive carbon 14 starts decaying.By determining at which stage of the decay is, the age of an object can be calculated.The full decay takes around 12,000 years, so objects can be determined this far back.



The Archaeological study of a large area for the porpoise of Gathering Information about a particular culture,e.g The Program for Belize Archaeological project with the aim mapping, artifact processing and artifact analysis which could give an insight in Mayan prehistory.



The assesments of the artifacts and structures are revealed at an excavation site.They study the artifacts design,weight,height,layout,content and origin obsessively.Analysis is important in Archaeology as it can show us after analyzing artifacts and samples found on archaeological sites what people were eating , their customs and culture i.e , burial, marriage, right of passage. So it helps us connect the dots on our ancestors way of life.


Tools of an Archaeologist

Here are some of the many instruments used by an Archaeologist.


Probing is an effective way when trying to see if there are any unexposed walls,floors or bedrock but it is only effective a few meters down. A Probe is a Archaeological tool consisting of a metal rod.                                                                          

Archaeologists use other tools as well to aid them in their quest of the unknown , i.e, a simple Toothbrush, a Spear and Jackson and a                  

                                                                    Underwater Archaeology requires a different set of  tools, i,e , gigantic Vacuums to suck up sediment , Giant sediment balloons to lift up heavy artifacts to the water surface.


Types of Artefacts.


Pottery is a very important artifact because it shows People of the past’s idea of Art , their flavor of style and their thoughts on events and the mystic and religious world around them.One example is the Aboriginal Pottery, the pictures clearly show us how Aborigines not only see the wildlife, but the environment as a whole. Because most of the Aboriginal Pottery is all brown and a reddish color, it shows us that Australia is a very hot and humid places.


Weaponry is a very important artifact because it shows how army’s,warriors,thief’s,gladiators,even locals, fought in the past.When Archaeologists find a weapon, they can tell when and where it came from because of its distinct style.From the big,elongated Swords of the British Knights, to the curved Scimitar’s of the Middle Eastern Warriors, to the long serrated Katana’s of the Samurai’s, to the fat,greedy BattleAxes of the Vikings, Archaeologists can tell when and where it came from. One prime example is the Arbalest, pictured at the left.It’s clear style is european and even the name is European, a french name which was brought from the Roman word for Crossbow,”Arcuballista”


The tomb of King Tut, Gold from the South American civilizations and celtic head ornaments , what do they all have in common. They are all Treasure. They made Fantasy’s and luxuries something of a reality.Treasure show us our Ancestor’s view of Luxury , worship and how they presented themselves towards the lower class.

Museum’s are the gateway to our  ancestors, a possibility of experiencing how they lived.


                                                          Here are a few more artifacts to show our Ancestors in close detail.

Bones:These Artifacts help us study the structure of our ancestors far, far into the past.


Household Objects:These Artifacts give us a good insight into our Ancestors house life. From cooking to cleaning to leisure.


Literal findings: Literal Findings are  books, tablets and scrolls .They show are ancestors thoughts ,ideas, ways of life, etc, in the written form.


 Famous Archaeologists

Howard Carter:

Howard Carter was a famous Archaeologist in his own right. His love of Archaeology took him as a 17-year old drawing someone else’s discoveries to find and draw his own discoveries, one of them being the resting place of king Tutankhamun.


Robert Ballard:

Robert Ballard was a underwater Archaeologist who discovered the Infamous Titanic in the year 1985, and the battleship Bismarck in 1989.

Importance of Archaeology.

We should thank Archaeologists for their hard work throughout generations and abundance of artifacts filling our Museums so people (You and I included) have the ability to witness history unfold.

Just to name a few.

The Smithsonian-Washington D.C

The British Museum-London

National Museum-Archaeology and History-Dublin.

Society of St. Vincent de Paul


        Founded in Paris on April 23rd, 1833, the Society of St. Vincent de Paul has become an international force for direct assistance to those suffering in conditions of poverty and social exclusion. It provides financial and other assistance in 132 countries worldwide. It has created many ‘sub-divisions’ to its organisation; such as Youth SVP in Britain, the SSVP and many religious and academic ‘off-shoots’ as well.

by _______________________  (Academic Year 2011-12)



Mythology of Ancient Greece


The Apprentice Boys of Derry

Handout: Apprentice BoysDerryMemoSheet


The Apprentice Boys of Derry celebrate their cultural & political inheritance every December and August. These celebrations are held to commemorate the lifting of the Siege of Derry in 1689. The siege occurred when the Catholic King James II of England & Ireland attacked the Protestant stronghold of Derry.  The Apprentice Boys celebrate two specific parts of that event:

The Apprentice Boys were founded in 1814. Their annual commemorations celebrate the ‘No Surrender’ mentality of the beseiged Protestants of 1689, many of whom were starved during the siege. These celebrations re-enforce the ‘siege’ mentality, which, when interwoven with the complex political history of Northern Ireland, produce a hard-line Protestant Loyalist attitude that, traditionally, refused to compromise with the Catholic population of Derry.




Closing of the Gates

Breaking the Boom

The ‘Closing of the Gates‘ by 13 Apprentice Boys, 1689

The Lifting of the Siege by the Mountjoy, 1689







Apprentice Boys Clubs:

Loyalist Flag

Apprentice March

Apprentice Boys









    • Membership is restricted to Protestants who are loyal to the throne of England










Routes & Celebrations:

Traditionally, the Apprentice Boys would march on the walls of Derry as part of their celebrations. This became, especially from the 1960’s onwards, a flash-point of tension between Catholics & Protestant marchers.



























American War of Independence

The Empire of Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great's Empire

Writers of the Augustan Period

Essays: Pursuit of Sovereignty

Please read the following guidelines in relation to the CM & OE marking scheme:

Guidelines to Essay Marking Scheme



Factors of Partition, 1912 – 1920


Q. During the period 1912-1920, what factors contributed to the partition of Ireland? (2010)

Q. From 1912 onwards, what factors contributed to the partition of Ireland, 1920? (2006)
Chris Ryan Partition of Ireland



Anglo-Irish Treaty Negotiations (1921)



Q. How successful were the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations? (Mock 2012)

How successful were the Anglo

Q. Why were the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations controversial? (2009)

ESSAYWhy were the AngloIrish Treaty Negotiations Controversial

Q. To what extent was the Anglo-Irish Treaty, 1921, responsible for the Irish Civil War? (2008)

Simon Crowley Outbreak of the Civil War



Consolidation of Democracy 1922 – 1932


Q. How did the Irish government contribute to the consolidation of democracy, 1922-1932? (2011)

Q. What steps did Irish governments take to consolidate democracy, 1923-1945? * (2008)

Q. Between 1922 and 1932, what steps did the Cosgrave governments take to establish the  Irish Free State on firm foundations? (2006)



Eucharistic Congress 1932


Q. To what extent did the 1932 Eucharistic Congress and/or the language and education policies of Irish governments promote Irish cultural identity? (2010)

Q. What was the significance of the Eucharistic Congress, 1932, for the Irish Free State? (2008)

What was the significance of the Eucharistic Congress of 1932 to the Irish Free State


Fianna Fáil Government 1932 – 1948


Q. What were the strengths and weaknesses of Éamon de Valera as a political leader? (2011)

Q. Who handled Anglo-Irish relations better, W. T. Cosgrave or Éamon de Valera?  Argue your case, referring to both. (2010)

Q. During the period 1932-1945, which did Éamon de Valera manage better, the economy or Anglo-Irish relations?  Argue your case, referring to both. (2009)

Q. How did Anglo-Irish relations develop during the period 1923 – 1949? (2007)

Simon Crowley Anglo-Irish Relations 1923 – 1949



Belfast during World War II








Ordinary Level

Anglo-Irish Treaty Negotiations 1921
Ciarán Rowe Anglo-Irish Treaty Negotiations 1921


Belfast during World War II

Ciarán Rowe Belfast during World War II, 1939 – 1945


Ideologies of the 20th Century:

International Relations

1870 – 1914